In the late 7th century CE, the semi nomadic Turkic Bulgars merged with the Vlach and Thracian people, were Slavicized, invaded the Byzantine Empire, and established the First Bulgarian Empire. A hundred years later, Nikephorus I Genik became Byzantine Emperor and after concluding peace treaties with Charlemagne and the Arabs, was determined reconquer the Bulgarian lands.
In 810, Nikephorus with a large Byzantine army of 60,000 invaded the Bulgarian Empire and expected an easy campaign. Initially he was not wrong and defeated the Bulgarians in two separate battles. But the pragmatic and wily Khan Krum knew he could not stand against the Byzantines in open battle and always managed to slip away before his army was completely destroyed. Three times Khan Krum tried to negotiate but the arrogant Nikephorus ignored him. In July, 811, the Byzantines captured, sacked, and razed Pliska, Krum’s capital. Confident in victory and heavily laden with slaves and plunder, the Byzantine Army withdrew back to Constantinople. However, Khan Krum had mobilized his entire people, and shadowed Nikephorus’ march home.
On 26 July 811, Khan Krum blocked the Byzantine Army in the Verbita Pass. As the Bulgar warriors descended on the column, the slaves taken at Pliska revolted, and the Byzantine Army broke. The Bulagrian people hunted down the routed troops, and in the ensuing massace, not a single Byzantine survived, including the emperor Nikephorus, his entire court, and most of his administration, all of whom went on the campaign expecting easy plunder.
After the battle was over, Krum had Nikephorus’ body found. He decapitated the corpse, and had the emperor’s skull bejeweled with the plunder taken from the Byzantine treasury and lined with silver. At the victory celebration, Khan Krum toasted his warriors and drank deeply from Nikephorus’ skull.
The Byzantines wouldn’t bother the Bulgarians for another hundred years.
Stymied by the Great Walls of the Qin and Tang Dynasties in the early first millennium CE, the Huns moved west. They drove entire nations before them, creating a ripple effect that exacerbated the rot inside the Roman Empire and brought about its fall. When the Huns burst into Europe 400 years later in the mid fifth century, Rome had been sacked three times in fifty years, and what remained of the Western Roman Empire was a Romano-Celtic-Germanic conglomeration at the ripples’ end in Gaul (modern France).
In 450 CE, Honoria, the sister of Roman emperor Valentinian III, was unhappy with her betrothal so she sent a message to the Huns’ leader, Attila, for assistance. Attila took the message as a marriage proposal with the Western Roman Empire as a dowry. Valentinian obviously disagreed. Atilla, known as the Scourge of God because Christians believed that he was sent to punish the corrupt Romans, invaded.
In 451, Attila and his army crossed the Rhine and sacked most of Gaul before confronting a combined Romano-Germanic army under Attila’s friend, Flavius Aetius, and the Visigothic King Theodric I, son of the infamous Alaric, who sacked Rome in 410.
The Allied army was typical of the “barbarization” of the Roman military in the final days of the Roman Empire. Ironically, so was Attila’s. Gone were the days of Roman legionary heavy infantry and Hunnic horse archers, though they existed in small numbers in both armies. Each army was mostly Germanic foederati, light spearmen and horsemen, though the Franks allied with Flavius were already known for the quality of their heavy(er) cavalry. On 20 June 451, outside of Chalons on the Catalaunia Fields, the two nearly indistinguishable armies met. In a chaotic battle in both which commanders lost control, they fought each other to a standstill. Theodric was killed, but Attila felt that no chick was worth this and retreated.
The Battle of Chalons was the last gasp of the Western Roman Empire. Attila’s campaign broke the Roman army, destroyed Gaul, shattered the Visigothic Kingdom, and neutered the Hunnic army. None recovered. Into the vacuum stepped the Slavs and various Germanic nations, especially the Franks. In gratitude for their service (and because they were going to take it anyway) Valentinian gave the semi mythical leader of the Franks, Merovech, land around the town of Aachen as his own. Within 50 years the Merovingian Franks would be the masters of west central Europe.
The destruction of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of King Ermanaric in 370 CE (in modern day Ukraine) by the ferocious and nomadic Huns under Atilla’s grandfather (or greatuncle) was one of the seminal events of the first millennium, and second only to the founding of Christianity in the 1st Century CE. The ripples of the the Ostrogothic Kingdom’s destruction completely tore apart the fabric of social order in Europe, initiating the so-called “Dark Ages”. For nearly fifty years prior, the Hunnic horse archers raided Germanic, Gothic, and Slavic settlements and were unstoppable versus the infantry based armies of those nations. King Ermanaric’s suicide due to his impotence against the Huns, the first non Indo European steppe culture to move west, was a signal that the latest incursions were permanent and not mere raiding parties. “The Great Migration” westward began out of fear of the Huns.
For the next 100 years, the Huns so terrified the Germanic tribes that they fled westward and southwards. The Visigoths, Bulgars and Avars moved south into the corrupt and beset Eastern Roman Empire. The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes took to their boats and invaded the Romano-Celtic Island of Britain. The Alans, Burgundians, Alemanni, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Suebi, Langobards, Friisi, and Franks invaded the dying and dilapidated Western Roman Empire. Into the vacuum of Eastern Europe left behind by the Germanic tribes, moved not the Huns, but the Slavs.
The Slavs were primarily an agricultural people that lived from the Volga in the East to the Danube in the West. They formed the slaves, lower classes, and levies of the Hunnic, Germanic, and Gothic kingdoms in which they served, with a few independent but isolated tribal groups. As the Vandals, Burgundians, and Goths migrated from the fertile river basins of the North German Plain, they were replaced by the Sclavian Slavs, specifically the Wend, Sorb, Polans and Vistula tribes, with many refugees from the now defunct kingdoms displaced by the Huns. In the 5th century, the Huns under the Attila conquered south and west of the Carpathian Mountains which left the Slavs north of the Carpathians free to consolidate their new lands.
The Polans tribe gradually dominated the area. In the mid-10th century, the looming spectre of conquest from the Turkic nomads from the east or the Christian Caroliginian Empire in the west convinced the Piast leaders of the Polans tribe that they had to join the family of Christian nations to the west in order to survive. In 966, Miezko I Piast converted to Christianity in order to marry the Czech princess Dobrawa, whose country converted one hundred years before. On 14 April 966, Miezko and Dobrawa were married, and their land was converted, its people baptized, and the country consecrated by the Church (not to mention recorded by the Vatican bureaucracy) as Poland, the “Land of the Polans”.
Around 850 CE, the Vikings stopped looking at England and Ireland as places to raid or seek mercenary work, but as places to colonize and settle. In 865, the Vikings banded together and formed what the Saxons called “The Great Heathen Army”. Under the leadership of Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan,Ubba, Sigurd Snake-Eye, and Bjorn Ironside i.e. the sons of semi-legendary Viking warlord Ragnar Lothbrok, the Great Heathen Army conquered the Anglo Saxon kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, and East Anglia, and formed the Danelaw, where Saxon law held no sway.
In 871, only the kingdom of Wessex still stood against the Danelaw, and in early January the Vikings invaded. On 4 January, the Saxon ealdorman Aethelwulf defeated a large raiding party at the Battle of Englefield which forced the Viking army to establish a camp at Reading to reorganize. On 6 January Aethelwulf was joined by the main West Saxon army led by King Aethelred and his younger brother Alfred. Aethelred immediately attacked the camp at Reading, where Halfdan Lothbrok’s men ambushed and defeated the Saxons, and forced their retreat.
Aethelred retreated to the Ashdown fields closely pursued by the entire Viking host. On the morning of 9 January 871, the West Saxon army was arrayed on a ridge while the Vikings approached in a much disorganized manner. Not waiting for his brother Aethelred to finish prayers, young Alfred seized the moment and ordered the Saxon army to attack. The hasty Viking shield wall held for a time but the disciplined and well led Saxon shield wall eventually broke them. Ashdown was a stunning and much needed West Saxon tactical victory but it was hardly decisive and the war would continue for many years. (Neither side had cavalry, the Combat Arm of Decision, and could not pursue and destroy a retreating army after a victory)
However, the Battle of Ashdown would cement Alfred’s leadership of the West Saxon army. In April, King Aethelred died and Alfred would be crowned King of Wessex despite Aethelred’s two sons. Over the next ten years Alfred would lose all of Wessex to the Great Heathen Army… but then subsequently regain it, reconquer the Danelaw, and unify the disparate Anglo Saxon kingdoms into greater England. For this he would forever be known as King Alfred the Great.
Our history is filled with death but in its annals there have only been a handful of singular deaths that set forward momentous events that changed the natural course of history. Off the top of my head, these include the deaths of Jesus of Nazareth, Cao Cao, Charlemagne, Ogedei Khan, and England’s Edward the Confessor.
In the tenth and early eleventh century, England was at a crossroads: would it be subject to the influences (and influencing) of continental Europe? Or would it be culturally isolated as part of Scandinavia? This question may seem ludicrous to us today, but there’s a reason the ninth century’s Alfred the Great is the only English monarch in history with the epithet “the Great” – it is because he fought off and eventually absorbed the great Viking invasions of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, uniting them and preventing them from becoming mere Viking colonies, like Iceland or Greenland.
In 1065 all of Alfred’s work hung in balance: his great great grandson Edward the Confessor (known so for his piety) was without heir. Upon his death on 5 January 1066, there were four claimants to his thrown: his nephew Edgar, a sickly boy of fourteen, Harold Godwinson, a Saxon earl with ties to the Kingdom of Denmark, Harold Hardrada, the Viking King of Norway, and his cousin William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy. On 6 January 1066, Harold Godwinson was crowned by the King’s Council, but the issue was far from decided.
Edward’s death set in motion one of the great dramas in history and would eventually decide the fate of a continent: Would England permanently entrench itself inside Europe and become the incubator for reforms and ideas that Western Civilization so desperately needed? Or would England continue to be a Viking playground? The matter would only be resolved ten months later on a hill just outside of a small town in south east England:
The early middle ages, and in particular the late 11th Century, was a difficult time for Europe and Christianity in general. In 1055, Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy split politically, physically, linguistically, and theologically in the Great Schism, fracturing Christendom in its most trying era.
Islam had been on the march for the last 350 years and nearly 2/3 of Christendom had fallen to the sword of jihad. Most of the bishoprics of the great early Christian thinkers, such as St Ignatius of Antioch, St Clement of Alexandria, St Gregory of Nyssa, and St Augustine of Hippo, were under Muslim occupation, not to mention the birthplace of Christ and the Holy City Jerusalem. Even the books of the Bible were a testament (Ha!) of how far Christianity had fallen to Islam: Galatea was recently conquered by the Seljuk Turks, and the travels in the old Roman Empire by John the Evangelist was a contemporary target list for Muslim corsairs, against whom the new(er) Byzantine Empire was powerless. In several instances, the Muslim tide lapped against the walls of their capital, Constantinople. But most disconcertingly, in 1071, the Byzantine Army, including the entire Varangian Guard, was smashed at the Battle of Manzikert, which left all of Anatolia open to conversion.
Furthermore, the remainder of Christendom was going through its own violent spasms, but internally. Feudalism was a decentralized system of power, protection, and production formed to adapt to the trials experienced by Europe during the Barbarian invasions after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and it had reached its natural limits. After Charlemagne divided the Carolingian Empire between his sons (the seminal event in European history), feudalism gave rise to a warrior class, the knights, that had little to do but fight amongst themselves. French, Italian, German, Polish, Hungarian, and Scandinavian lands were a patchwork of robber baronies and petty kingdoms that raided and warred upon each other. Among many other examples, Norman adventuring had conquered England in 1066, Southern Italy in the 1070s and were raiding Byzantine ports in the 1080s, all fellow Christians. A unifying force was needed before Western Civilization tore itself apart.
By the 1090s, Pope Urban II was the most powerful man in Europe. He instituted hard fought, if limited, reforms to Catholicism and the Papacy, and emerged from the struggle determined save Christendom from itself. An astute politician, he first put the Italian house in order and then turned to the rest of Europe. Taking note of the Norman conquest of the Emirate of Sicily and the campaigns of a Spanish warlord, El Cid, he began laying the groundwork for the unification of Christendom. In March 1095, he received a request from the Byzantine Emperor, Alexius I Komenos, for help against Seljuk Turks. It was exactly the impetus he needed (and might even bring Eastern Orthodoxy back into the Roman Catholic fold). He called for a Holy Synod in the city of Clermont, and requested that each bishop bring along the strongest lord in his diocese. More than 600 of the most influential men in Europe showed up.
On 27 November, 1095, Pope Urban II gave an emotional speech that appealed to the men’s sense of chivalry, piety, and most especially, greed. He called for a crusade to reconquer the Holy Lands in exchange for forgiveness of their sins. The response was much more than he dared hope for. To the cheering cries of “Deus Vult!”, “God’s Will!” the lords of the land departed Clermont to make ready for an immediate journey east.
What we would know as the First Crusade had begun.
In 632 CE the Prophet Mohammad died, and his succession became disputed. His first successor was his father in law, Abu Bakr, even though Mohammad’s son in law, Ali ibn Abi Talib claimed Mohammed passed leadership of the caliphate (Islamic State) directly to him. In any case, in a show of solidarity for the small Muslim community, Ali accepted Abu Bakr’s leadership.
Over the next decades, Abu Bakr and his two successors were assassinated during early infighting among the Arabic tribes and Ali became the fourth caliph. Ali’s followers claimed that this was divine will in action because Ali was the only caliph directly chosen by Mohammad. Ali spread the Caliphate from the Arabian Peninsula north to the Caucus Mountains, east across Persia, and west across the north African coast. Ali was assassinated in Kufa (modern Najaf, Iraq) in 661.
Ali’s followers declared his son Hussein Ali the caliph. Hussein Ali was Mohammad’s grandson by blood through his mother, Mohammed’s daughter. But his followers were suppressed by Muawiyah, the son of the assassinated third caliph, who had a larger army and power base in the Levant and Syria. Muawiyah became the first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. But Ali’s supporters did not recognize him because he lacked a blood tie to Mohammad, and fought a low level insurgency in support of Hussein Ali for caliph. Twenty years later in 680, Muawiyah died, and his son Yazid was nominated caliph. In response, Kufa and most of Mesopotamia openly declared for Ali and in rebellion against Umayyad Caliphate. Unfortunately for Ali, he was in Mecca at the time, and this put him in a precarious position, so he raced back to his power base in Kufa with a thousand followers.
On 10 October 680 CE Ali got as far as the Karbala Pass, which was blocked by a vastly superior army led by Yazid. In the ensuing battle, Ali, his family, and all of his followers were massacred. Ali’s followers never forgave Yazid. This led directly to the schism of Islam into the Sunni and Shia branches. Hussein Ali was/is considered a martyr by his followers and they would accept only his descendants as leaders of the caliphate. They would go on to form the Shia branch of Islam when Ali’s followers subsumed Persia, and Islam was influenced by the early Persian Zoroastrianism. Shia’s leadership by bloodline formed a more centralized and hierarchical Islam as seen in Iran with the rule by the Ayatollahs today (all of whom claim to be descendants of Ali, and hence Mohammad). Yazid and his successors went on to form the Sunni, and without a direct blood tie to Mohammad, a much more decentralized branch of Islam. The Shia consider Yazid, all of his successors, and the Sunni in general as usurpers, and this is the basis of the Sunni/Shia divide in Islam today.
In the late 9th century CE, Alfred the Great, King of the Anglo-Saxons, threw the Viking invaders out of the Wessex and Mercia. However, the other five of the seven kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy East Anglia, Mercia, Kent, Essex, Sussex, and most of Northumbria remained in the hands of the Vikings. Known as the “Danelaw”, the Viking’s ruled over their own petty kingdoms inside the Danelaw.
In 909 CE, Alfred’s son and daughter, King Edward the Elder of Wessex and Aethelflaed, the Lady of Mercia, launched their own raid into the Danelaw to recapture the relics of Saint Oswald. Saint Oswald was a powerful former founder of Northumbria, and saint who converted Northumbria to Christianity. His relics were held in the Kingdom of Jórvík (York), the southern Viking ruled portion of Northumbria. Edward and Aethelflaed’s successful recovery of Saint Oswald’s relics established their legitimacy among the Northumbrian population, who for decades languished under the pagan Danelaw.
In reprisal for the raid, three “kings” of the Danelaw, the brothers Ivarr, Eowils and Halfdan Ragnarsson sought revenge. In 910, they learned Edward was in the south of Wessex and planned to raid his sister Aethelflaed’s weaker lands in his absence. They gathered a large army, and in their longboats struck up the River Severn into the heart Mercia. Scuttling their longboats, they ravaged Mercia with impunity, gathering a great amount of slaves and loot, with Aethelflaed and the Mercian army just out of reach.
Unfortunately for the Vikings, Edward learned of the raid in advance. He marched his West Saxon army to Mercia’s aid and merged with Aethelflaed’s army. Edward maneuvered his army of Mercians and West Saxons between the booty laden Viking army and forced the three brothers to battle outside the village of Tettenhall.
Not much is known of the specifics of the Battle of Tettenhall. What is known is that Edward and Aethelflaed “trapped” the Viking army. “Many thousands” of Vikings died, including Ivarr, Eowils and Halfdan, and potentially the entire army was wiped out. The massacre was “so terrible… no language can describe.” The devastating Viking loss at Tettenhall broke the Danelaw, and laid it open for invasion and re-conquest by the Anglo-Saxons.
The Viking host of Ivarr, Eowils and Halfdan was the last great Viking raiding army to ravage Anglo-Saxon lands. With the northern Danes defeated, Edward and Aethelflaed reconquered the southern kingdoms of the Heptarchy. Edward’s son Aethelstan continued his father’s and aunt’s reconquest by invading and conquering the Kingdom of York. Shortly thereafter, Aethelstan accepted the fealty of the notoriously proud northern Northumbrians. In 927 CE, Aethelstan was crowned the first King of England.
In 793, the raid on the island of Lindisfarne on Northumbria’s east coast began the Viking Age. For the next 70 years, Viking raids terrorized the Angle, Jute, Saxon, and Celtic settlements and petty kingdoms of the British Isles. Seasonal raids by Danish and Norwegian Vikings arrived off the coast in the longships and plundered any settlement within riding distance of the coast. Most settlements paid them the “danegeld” or ransom for their lives which the Vikings accepted enthusiastically. It was safer, and destruction of a settlement was counterproductive. Raiding was more lucrative if the inhabitants were able to pay again next raiding season. You do not kill sheep, you shear them. In any case, by the time the local eorl or military leader assembled a force large enough to defeat the raiders, the Vikings loaded back on their ships and disappeared. With rare exceptions (King Aethelwulf of Wessex defeated a large Viking raid in 851), this pattern remained unchanged until 865.
In 865, the Vikings no longer came to the British Isles to raid but to conquer and settle. The land was so much richer than their own in Scandinavia. They stole vast wealth from there every year; it seemed more efficient to just work and lord over the land themselves for the riches. That year, the sons of the semi-mythical Ragnar Lothbrok gathered a massive force to invade the British Isles. With hundreds of ships and 3000 warriors, Ivar the Boneless (he was either crippled or impotent, historians have evidence for both) Halfdan Ragnarrson, Bjorn Ironside, and famed warrior Ubba, gathered a coalition of Viking warbands from all lands bordering the North and Irish Seas to defeat the inhabitants of the petty kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Since the Germanic invasions of the British Isles in the 500s, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes established seven Germanic kingdoms among the Celtic remains and rump states formed after the departure of the Romans. In the north was Northumbria. In the east, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, and Sussex, whom took the brunt of the Viking raids. In the west was Wessex. And the most powerful was in the center, Mercia. The kingdoms were fierce rivals and abhorred the Viking raids, but nevertheless used Viking mercenaries in the wars against each other. The divided nature of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy left them vulnerable to the Viking army, which they deemed “The Great Heathen Army”.
The Great Heathen Army landed in Kent on 26 March 865. They ravaged the small kingdom and spent the winter enjoying the spoils encamped on an island off the coast. In 866, they invaded East Anglia and establishing a permanent danegeld, known as the Danelaw, in Kent, effectively turning it into a puppet kingdom. King Edmund of East Anglia bought off the Viking horde by stripping his kingdom of horses and bribed the Vikings to ride north, against Northumbria. According to legend, King Aella of Northumbria killed Ragnar Lothbrok (or worse, converted him to Christianity) and the sons exacted revenge. They captured York in 867 and again established the Danegeld. The Great Heathen Army turned south and invaded Mercia later that year. They captured Nottingham, but were in turn besieged by a combined army from Mercia and Wessex under the King of Wessex and Lord of Eastern Mercia, King Aethelred. At Nottingham, both sides were fought out, and Aethelred bought off the Vikings, who returned to Northumbria. In 868, the Great Heathen Army returned to East Anglia to establish the Danegeld, and were met by King Edmund again. But this time he wasn’t there to bribe them but to fight them. The East Anglian army was defeated and Edmund was captured. He was tied to a tree and told to renounce his faith. Edmund refused to the Vikings used him for archery practice. King Edmund was later canonized St. Edmund the Martyr and became the first patron saint of England, until St. George was chosen a hundred or so years later.
In 869, the Great Heathen Army was weakened by casualties, so consolidated the Danelaw for the rest of the year to gather their strength. In 870, the Great Heathen Army was joined by Viking warlord Bagsecg and the Great Summer Army. The Great Summer Army was comprised of the usual seasonal Vikings, but when Bagsecg heard of the Great Heathen Army’s massive success, he convinced them to band together and join the sons of Ragnar. The reinvigorated Great Heathen Army invaded Wessex and set up a joint camp at Reading with Bagseg and Halfdan sharing command. A local force under Ealdorman Aehelwulf defeated a Viking foraging party at the Battle of Eanglefield, which gave the Aethelred the confidence to attack the Vikings’ main camp at Reading. With the main West Saxon Army, Aethelwulf, King Aethelred and his little brother Alfred initially defeated the Vikings outside the main camp at Reading. But once they reached the camp gates, they were struck by Vikings who rushed out. Defeated, but not decisively so, the West Saxon army withdrew. Under Alfred, the West Saxon army turned and defeated the pursuing Great Heathen Army at the Battle of Ashdown four days later on 7 January 871, while his brother the king heard mass, killing Bacsecg and a number Viking chieftains. Aethelred died three months later, and newly crowned King Alfred of Wessex bought off the Vikings. The Great Heathen Army rushed north to put down a rebellion in Northumbria.
Alfred could only play for time. The Vikings wouldn’t settle until they were crushed or took all of the British Isles. Over the next eight years, the Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, Ubba, Bjorn Ironside and the Great Heathen Army conquered six of the seven kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, with only King Alfred and Wessex resisting by 878. Nonetheless, the Great Heathen Army reduced the Kingdom of Wessex to a single hut in the Sommerset swamps, where Alfred and his retinue fled after the Vikings defeated him at Chippenham. For a brief period in 878, almost the entirety of the British Isles were effectively part of Scandinavia. That they are not so today is the reason that there is only one monarch in England’s history with the epithet “the Great” – King Alfred the Great.
But that’s a story for another time.
In late 1114, Henry V (not that one, the Frankish version) the Holy Roman Emperor, invaded the Duchy of Saxony to assert his authority on Duke Lothair of Supplinsburg. Lothair was the Pope’s ally in the Investiture Controversy and supported the Pope’s demands to appoint local church officials. More practically, Lothair despised Henry’s heavy handed ways. Henry was a direct descendant of Charlemagne and believed he was a Roman Emperor no different than Nero, Augustus, or Marcus Aurelius.
On 11 February 1115, Lothair’s Saxon army met Henry’s Imperial army just outside the town of Welfesholz (in modern day Saxon-Anhalt, Germany). The Imperial Army was led by Henry’s field marshal, Count Hoyer of Mansfeld. The Imperial Army was defeated when a young knight slew Mansfeld in single combat during the battle. The Imperial Army army routed after witnessing Mansfeld’s death.
The battle effectively broke Imperial power and ended the destructive 50 year long “civil war” between medieval Germans that had stalled Central Europe politically and culturally. More importantly, the Battle of Welfesholz forced Henry, at the Concordant of Worms in 1122, to accept the Papal investiture of bishops in the Holy Roman Empire, and soon, all of Christendom.
Up to this point in the Middle Ages, Imperial dukes, counts, and princes relied on the bishops and clergy for the administration of their territories. Since the clergy had to be literate (to read the Bible) and Imperial nobility could appoint them, it made sense to have the loyal clergy administer the Empie. But after the Battle of Welfesholz and Concordant of Worms, the Empire’s administration was no longer solely loyal to the Emperor and his princes. The new Papal influence on bishops forced the Imperial nobility to create their own administrations separate from the clergy. A loyal secular administration demanded an increase in literacy among the population to fill the vacuum left by the potentially divided loyalties of the clerical (religious) staff.
The ability to appoint bishops greatly increased Papal and monastic influence across Europe and elevated members of the lower classes to unheard of power and glory in the process as Papal appointed clergy. And the nobility’s inability to appoint clergy in their realms meant a vast increase in noble military aged males with nothing to do. Where once they’d be chosen as priests and bishops, they now became barons, knights, or mercenaries. This massive influx of fighting men pushed feudalism to its natural limits and the Imperial lands became a patchwork of robber baronies and petty kingdoms that raided and warred upon each other.